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For most individuals, living with a physical body that does not match one’s actual gender identity is a very difficult and uncomfortable way to exist, function and interact. Transgender identity and the related issues often create a dysphoria associated with anxiety, depression, substance abuse and other negative issues. Fortunately, advancements in transgender plastic surgery and medicine have made gender transition easier, real and natural and with results that are far more satisfying.

At the Arizona Center for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, board-certified plastic surgeon Steven H. Turkeltaub, MD offers female to male (FTM) and male to female (MTF) breast surgery in order to help his patients transition in their appearance to match their gender identity. When you visit his practice for your consultation and postoperative care, you can expect to receive non-judgmental professionalism, understanding, attention and support. He will strive to understand your unique desires and perspectives, develop a customized treatment plan with you based on your anatomical needs and lifestyle goals and then help you achieve the life-changing transformation that you deserve.

Dr. Turkeltaub is a member of the “World Professional Association for Transgender Health” (WPATH).

FTM Breast Surgery

What is FTM Transgender Top Surgery?

FTM (Female to Male) transgender top surgery is the gender affirming breast surgery that transforms a genetically determined female chest to a masculine appearing one and in line with the person’s inherent gender identity. This is extremely effective in addressing gender dysphoria. It is the first and, far more often than not, the only surgical procedure pursued in one’s transformation to successfully and happily living as a male.

In general terms, the surgery entails the removal of the female breast through a mastectomy and altering other structures (nipple-areola complex) in a variety of ways in order to provide a manly appearance with minimal tell-tale signs of a previous female anatomy. The specific procedure that would be most appropriate to accomplish this is precisely individualized for each individual patient.

For those individuals who are non-binary, the term “FTM” transgender top surgery is not accurately descriptive. Nevertheless, the concepts are similar but there are often variations that must be addressed such as the desire not to have any nipple-areola complexes at all. Again, the treatment plan is aligned based on each person’s desires and goals.

We have found that our FTM breast surgery patients are at the top among our happiest, most satisfied and appreciative patients. Truly for them, this is really an overwhelmingly positive life changing experience.

What Does the FTM Breast Procedure Entail?

Female to male breast surgery entails masculinizing the appearance of the female breast and chest wall. The standard procedure is usually accomplished by the thorough removal of breast tissue with either a nipple sparing mastectomy (“keyhole”) or subcutaneous mastectomy with a free nipple graft (“double incision”). Liposuction may need to be employed in order to obtain a more thorough transformation. In addition, the large female nipple-areola complex typically needs to be substantially reduced in size and repositioned on the breast to create a more masculine appearance. Not addressing this can compromise the results. When excess skin is present with the nipple sparing mastectomy, a concentric circle (peri-areolar) mastopexy can be performed.

Just like all surgical procedures, there are certain risks associated with FTM breast surgery. Depending on the procedure selected, these are similar to the ones that can occur with breast reduction or gynecomastia surgery. Dr. Turkeltaub does everything in his power to avoid and minimize the risk of experiencing these complications.

I am a transgender male and Dr. Turkeltaub did my top surgery. I am very pleased with my results and everyone that I show my chest to is very impressed. My scarring is minimal, my nipples are very well shaped, and Dr. Turkeltaub did an amazing job at keeping everything symmetrical. I was really large chested and a bit nervous as to how the final result would look, but from the very first day I was really pleased! My results just keep getting better and better. He is also very gentle handed so I only bruised in one very small area and I probably only bruised because I was a bit more active than I should have been 1 week after surgery. The office staff are very knowledgeable, friendly, and answer all questions without issue. I called many, many times with all kinds of questions and the staff always put my concerns or questions to rest with spot on answers. They were also very quick at getting my surgery scheduled and took on all communication with my insurance. I recommend Dr. Turkeltaub to everyone interested in getting any type of surgery with him but I really, really recommend him for transgender surgeries. The whole office and Dr. Turkeltaub are extremely LGBT+ friendly and they are dedicating a portion of their practice to transgender procedures. Both my partner and I felt very comfortable with every interaction with the entire office. I recommend Dr. Turkeltaub 100% and I am very grateful that I came across his practice!

What Are the Different FTM Breast Surgery Techniques?

The incision pattern utilized to perform female to male breast surgery depends several factors that include the pre-existing breast size, configuration, degree of skin laxity and excess, and the size and location of the nipple areola complex. Dr. Turkeltaub offers the following FTM breast surgical approaches:

Nipple sparing mastectomy (“Keyhole”) – This method involves an incision along the lower half of the areola through which the mastectomy (breast tissue removal) can be performed. The scar is relatively minimal in size and is usually fairly inconspicuous. This approach is most appropriate for patients who have excellent skin elasticity and minimal breast tissue. For those with large areolas, the incision can be extended around the entire areolar circumference in order to reduce its size so as to provide for a more masculine appearance.

Nipple sparing mastectomy with periareolar mastopexy (“Concentric circle”) – This is the same technique as the nipple sparing mastectomy above except that a periareolar (circumareolar) mastopexy is performed at the same time. Concentric circles are made around the areola enabling the removal of a ring of skin resulting in skin tightening. An areolar reduction can be incorporated into this approach. This periareolar approach is usually reserved for individuals who also have some excess and lax skin.

Subcutaneous mastectomy and free nipple graft (“Double incision”) – This approach involves a mastectomy and the excision of a large ellipse of skin along the crease at the bottom of the breast. The nipple-areolar complexes are removed, reduced in size and then placed back in the appropriate location as full thickness skin grafts. This technique is commonly employed in patients who have a moderate to large amount of breast tissue and skin laxity.

Inverted “T” – Similar to the standard incision used in most breast reduction surgeries, the inverted “T” incision (also known as the anchor-shaped incision or Wise pattern incision) encircles the areola, continues down the underside of the breast and continues horizontally along the inframammary fold for a variable length. Using this approach, the nipple-areola complex is usually repositioned as a free nipple graft and the mastectomy is performed. This technique is used very infrequently.

During your consultation, the techniques that would be most relevant and appropriate to your particular situation will be discussed in great detail.

What Is FTM Breast Surgery Recovery Like?

To help minimize any post-operative bruising, swelling and discomfort, a snug form-fitting dressing is placed around the chest following surgery and kept on for a few days. This is then replaced with a form-fitting garment that is worn for at least one to two weeks thereafter.

The majority of patients experience only a mild degree of discomfort that can typically be alleviated with oral medication. Most individuals feel well enough to return to school and/or non-strenuous office jobs within a few days of surgery but any vigorous physical activity or heavy lifting will need to be avoided for a minimum of three to four weeks.

Results of the transgender surgery are evident immediately though it can take up to a year for all the swelling to fully resolve and the incision lines to mature and largely fade. You actually may see some increased swelling for the first two months which then gradually subsides. For all practical purposes, though, the final results are close to being realized at about six months.

The final outcome of FTM breast surgery can be truly life-changing for individuals transitioning from female to male.


*Individual Results May Vary

Real Patient Experience: Early Recuperation from Keyhole FTM Top Surgery

Generalizations can be made about the expected early recuperation from the keyhole approach for FTM top surgery but this does not guarantee that it will perfectly match your experiences. The reason for this is that each person’s unique constellation of factors and variables strongly affects the outcome and perceptions. Nevertheless, the following patient of Dr. Turkeltaub can illustrate what you may be able to expect.

This 20s patient underwent a FTM mastectomy using the keyhole approach under general anesthesia (photos A, C and E). A drain tube was placed on each side along with a postoperative compressive dressing. Two days later the dressing was removed and replaced by a compression garment. At eight days, both of the drain tubes were removed in the office. Discomfort level at this time was fairly minimal.

Due to social media policies, the following images have been censored. Please click on the button below to view the image.

*Individual Results May Vary

At only three and a half weeks, the early results can be seen and are significant (photos B, D and F). No pain medication is being taken. Swelling is present though not overwhelming and no bruising is present. The incisions with areas of redness seen on the side views are where the drains exited the skin.

Swelling can take up to two months to maximize then start to resolve. It can take up to a year for maximal resolution of the swelling in order to see the long-term results. The drain exit sites should ultimately heal as fine lines.

The results should be a masculine appearing chest with virtually invisible, very short scars.

Does Insurance Cover FTM Transgender Top Surgery?

Many major insurance companies do offer at least some insurance benefits for FTM top surgery but, like many other medically related issues, coverage is dependent on your specific policy. In order to be eligible for this coverage, however, you must comply with the delineated guidelines which do vary by company.

The following are generally required by most insurance plans:

  1. Persistent, well-documented gender dysphoria.
  2. A letter from a qualified mental health professional that, among other things, confirms your diagnosis of gender dysphoria and fully supports your desire to proceed with the gender affirming breast surgery.
  3. Evidence of your capacity to make a fully informed decision and to consent for this surgery.
  4. If there are significant medical or mental health issues at present, they must be reasonably well controlled.
  5. Must be at least 18 years of age though there are some exceptions.

Since 2014, Medicare has been authorized to provide coverage for FTM breast surgery but only on a case by case basis. There is no blanket guarantee.

If you want to pursue FTM top surgery but don’t have insurance or insurance coverage, we do have “cosmetic” pricing available to help make this both more affordable and a reality. If needed, several financing options are available including with CareCredit and Alphaeon though you will have to meet their credit standards.

How Much Does FTM Transgender Top Surgery Cost?

According to data shared on RealSelf, the cost of FTM top surgery is generally between $4,900 and $12,000 in the Scottsdale area, with the average expense reported as $8,475. Although these numbers can provide a good point of reference, the exact pricing for your FTM breast procedure will depend on a variety of different elements that include:

Typically, medications and post-operative garments are not included in the pricing.

In order to provide a custom quote, Dr. Turkeltaub will need to meet with you for an in-person consultation at our practice. At this time, he can perform a thorough evaluation and give you a detailed breakdown of all associated costs based on an individualized treatment plan. If you wish, a team member can also introduce you to various financing and payment plan options that help to make FTM breast surgery expenses manageable for almost any budget.

MTF Breast Surgery

What is MTF Transgender Top Surgery?

MTF (Male to Female) transgender top surgery is the gender affirming procedure that transforms a genetically male chest to a more feminine appearing one. It is essentially a breast augmentation for those with gender dysphoria. However, there are some substantially different and important issues that must be addressed in order to obtain the best possible outcome. These will all be discussed with you in great detail at the time of your consultation with Dr. Turkeltaub.

How Is the MTF Breast Procedure Performed?

Male to female breast surgery is performed the same as a standard breast augmentation. During the procedure, breast implants are carefully inserted through a predetermined incision and placed either above or below the pectoralis major muscle to achieve a more feminine-appearing chest. Dr. Turkeltaub employs a very gentle and meticulous surgical technique to help limit any post-operative discomfort and allow you to achieve the results that you desire.

The potential risks associated with MTF breast surgery are identical to those experienced in breast augmentation. These will be discussed with you at the time of your consultation.

Breast Implant Options

At the Arizona Center for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Dr. Turkeltaub offers a wide array of breast implant sizes, configurations, shapes, types and implant fill material that includes various levels of silicone gel cohesiveness in order to help meet the unique needs and desires of every individual. The implant options will be discussed comprehensively at the time of your consultation with Dr. Turkeltaub. Based on a multitude of factors, he will make recommendations to you that will help you to obtain the results that you desire.

For more specific information about implants, please visit Dr. Turkeltaub’s page on breast implants.

MTF Breast Surgery Incision Choices

Individuals considering male to female breast surgery have three incision options through which implants can be placed. These include:
Inframammary – This incision is made at the crease beneath the breast known as the inframammary fold. The location of the inframammary incision allows for optimal short- and long-term flexibility, improved exposure and visualization during surgery and better predictability of results. For these reasons (among several others), it is the most common incision used for the placement of implants.

Transaxillary – Located in the armpit, the transaxillary incision is the second most popular technique due to the absence of any incisions/scarring on the breasts themselves. Despite this key benefit, there are a number of factors that need to be taken into consideration before selecting this approach, all of which will be discussed at the time of the consultation.

Periareolar – The periareolar incision is made along the lower-half margin of the areola. When performed skillfully the resulting scar can be relatively inconspicuous. This approach, however, is rarely a viable option especially when silicone breast implants are selected. The reason for this is that it is difficult or impossible to realistically insert fully filled silicone implants through incisions made along the lower half of the generally smaller-sized nipples one is starting out with.

Following a thorough review of the advantages and disadvantages of each option, Dr. Turkeltaub can help you select the best incision location for your unique needs and desires.

Implant Placement

There are two implant placement options for MTF breast: in front of the pectoralis major muscle (submammary) or behind it (submuscular or subpectoral). For the reasons highlighted below, Dr. Turkeltaub recommends placing breast implants submuscularly most of the time.

What Is MTF Breast Surgery Recovery Like?

A firm, form-fitting compression dressing is placed immediately after surgery and remains on for about two to three days before being replaced by a sports-type bra. This is to be worn all day and all night for approximately two weeks, after which it is strongly recommended that you wear a bra that provides optimal support as often as possible to help maintain an ideal breast shape and limit sagging over time.

Swelling and firmness in the breasts will typically be experienced initially, sometimes causing the breasts to look larger and feel harder than anticipated. Fortunately, these symptoms should resolve over the course of several months to eventually reveal a size and contour closer to what was originally envisioned.

There may be some mild to moderate discomfort within the first few days of recovery, but most patients are able to return to non-strenuous jobs and normal daily routines after about five to seven days. It is strongly recommended that any sports, vigorous exercise and other similar activities be avoided for at least three weeks.

Though the overall results can be seen initially, it can take several months or longer for most all of the swelling to subside, the skin to stretch out and the muscles to relax. By six months you will be very close to seeing the long-term results.

These results can dramatically improve one’s comfort, confidence and appearance allowing for a very positive and successful transition.

Is There Insurance Coverage for MTF Transgender Top Surgery?

Unfortunately, MTF breast surgery is considered to be cosmetic in nature by insurance companies and, therefore, is almost never a covered benefit. Consequently, and like the very similar breast augmentation procedure, you would need to pay for this on your own.

We will provide you with explicit pricing information so that you will know up front what the expected costs will be. Financing options are available, if needed, to help make your breast surgery a wonderful reality for you.

What Does MTF Transgender Breast Surgery Cost?

Based on patient submissions to RealSelf.com, the cost of MTF top surgery in the Scottsdale region typically spans from $2,975 to $10,500, with an average price of $6,425. While these numbers can give you a good idea of what your MTF breast surgery might cost, it is important to understand that there are several factors that can influence the exact price of your treatment. Some of the most notable elements that dictate the total expense of MTF breast procedures include the surgical technique utilized, the complexity of the operation, the particular implants selected, the plastic surgeon’s level of skill and experience, the geographic location of the practice, and charges for the anesthesiologist and the operating facility. Pre- and post-operative medications and any post-surgical garments are usually not included in the quoted fees but ultimately are an additional cost.

To obtain a personalized quote for MTF top surgery, you will need to schedule a consultation with Dr. Turkeltaub. During this appointment, he can review your specific needs and goals, develop a custom treatment plan and provide a detailed breakdown of all expenses associated with your procedure.

If you are interested in payment plan options, a knowledgeable member of our team can assist you in the application process for plastic surgery financing. Our practice partners with CareCredit®, ALPHAEON® CREDIT and several other trusted healthcare lenders that can help make MTF transgender breast surgery an affordable reality for virtually all budgets.

Transgender Breast Surgery Patient Testimonials*


*Individual Results May Vary

Interested in FTM or MTF Breast Surgery?

If you are considering FTM or MTF breast surgery, Dr. Turkeltaub would be happy to assist you in your gender transformation. Please contact our practice online or by phone today to schedule a consultation.

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